Gurutama Language Map

Language Map

Last night I made a map representing the relationships between different languages in Gurutama.

Since I am playing on using the Hackmaster rule system for Gurutama I modeled the relations between the languages on how languages work in Hackmaster.

Languages are treated as skills in Hackmaster with proficiencies ranging from 0-100%.

0-25% is when you know a few words in the other language. Most Californians have at least this much understanding of Spanish.

26-50% is when someone knows how to construct sentence frames, but can’t really carry a conversation. Someone who’s still learning the language.

51-75% is when someone knows enough to go on vacation to another country and speak that country’s language, but not enough to have a conversation about philosophy or something. My wife and I probably have this level of proficiency with Spanish.

76-87% is a normal mastery of a language. Hackmaster treats this level as the amount most people have in their native language.

88-100% is when someone knows lots of fancy words in their language. My dad has a PhD in linguistics, so he probably falls into this range.

That should give you a better idea of what the penalties listed in the image above mean.

Lets say that English is Merese on that map up there. My dad with his PhD in English linguistics would have around 20% mastery of a language that English borrows words from, like Swedish. He’d recognize a few cognates between the languages and he might know how to construct sentences, but he can’t really speak Swedish.

I’d guess that I have around 60% proficiency in Spanish. French is a very similar language. Everyone else in my family spoke French occasionally when I was growing up and the little bit of Spanish I know allowed me to understand the gist of the conversation even if I couldn’t participate. French and Spanish would be considered divergent languages in the Hackmaster system (along with Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, etc.).

A few of the languages up there might not be recognizably from Gurutama. Some of those are for monster races like trolls, giants, and orcs. The others, like Krangi, Lathlani, and Sqwuani, are for a few of the main races. Krangi is Hobgoblin, Lathlani is Elven, and Sqwuani is Avian.

The other members of my D&D group are getting a little more interested in Gurutama lately and there was talk of setting up a wiki for the campaign setting so everyone could edit and add stuff on.

If the wiki is set up I’ll start moving content there. The stuff I create will still be posted here but my friends can’t make the same promise.

That’s it for today!

-GoCorral

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Autoclaves

The big autoclave at my work that can hold four trays worth of autoclave materials.
The big autoclave at my work that can hold four trays worth of autoclave materials.

I’ve mentioned autoclaves in my science posts in the past. Autoclaves are one of the basic sterilization tools in a lab.

The autoclave pictured above is one of the bigger ones around used by the people in my rice lab.

What is an autoclave? Basically a its a steam oven.

When scientists were first trying to sterilize stuff, boiling a solution on a stove was the easiest way.

But boiling has a problem.

Say you want to create a solution of 3 liters of water with 4 grams of salt per liter. You measure out 3 liters of water and you pour in 12 grams of salt.

But now you need to sterilize it. You put it on the stove to boil.

After it boils you measure the volume of your solution and now only 2.5 liters are left!

So the solution is sterile, but its no longer the concentration you wanted.

There are ways to work around this obviously by adding more water or less salt, but that gets tiresome.

Eventually a French scientist, Charles Chamberland, invented the autoclave to avoid this sort of problem.

The temperature inside an autoclave heats up to 121°C (250°F). This is a higher temperature than boiling.

Normally water would boil in an autoclave and you’d have the same problem, but heating isn’t the only thing an autoclave does.

The air pressure inside is about 20 times room pressure. This air pressure forces the liquids you place in an autoclave to stay liquid instead of evaporating into gas.

Thus the temperature can be raised to kill any bacteria, microbes, or other nasty things in your solution of salt water, but the solution does not changed its concentration.

The most interesting part for me is why the machine is called an autoclave.

Autoclave is a Greco-Latin word that means self-locking.

With a normal oven you can open it at 250°F (121°C) and you’ll be fine.

But what if that oven was full of 20 times the amount of steam that normally would be in there?

The steam would fly out of the oven and give you horrible burns if the autoclave was opened suddenly.

Thus it was very important for Chamberland to prevent that accident.

The autoclave cannot be opened until the steam has been condensed into water and removed from the machine. The bottom left of the picture on this blog shows the pipe where the hot water comes out of the autoclave.

That’s all for today!

-Mister Ed